Vehicles – cars
The cars are small motorized vehicles. Their success as a means of transport for people and goods is due speed and independence that allow. But this popularity has led to overloading traffic and pollution. Over 60 million cars are produced worldwide every year. Most have four wheels and an internal combustion engine piston type water-cooled engine, powered by gasoline / petrol or diesel. Unfortunately, the burning of fossil fuels by cars on a large scale so causes serious air pollution and noise pollution, and roads occupy valuable land. Cars are responsible for about 25% of their carbon dioxide in the world. Carbon dioxide gas contributes greatly to global warming. Manufacturers and drivers are becoming increasingly aware of the negative effect of the internal combustion engine, which results in automobile construction that is constantly upgraded to produce cars more efficient and environmentally safe. The first car was built after more than a hundred years, the Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz. Despite the research, development and reconstruction, construction engineering of cars has changed very little, although in reality the story is a little different.
Fuel crisis pronounced especially in the 1970s led to experiments with car battery, diesel, cars with gas or solar power and hybrid cars, which use both electricity (in cities) and gasoline / petrol in longer trips. Other fuel-saving innovations that were fuel injection, reducing by 20% the consumption of gasoline / petrol, reducing vehicle body weight by using aluminum and plastics; construction aerodynamic car body with a reduced air resistance. A major innovation introduced catalytic converters to oxidize the exhaust gases. And microprocessors have been developed for measuring temperature, engine speed, pressure and oxygen content and carbon dioxide exhaust gas and engine readjustment depending on these factors. In 1992, General Motors and Ford have joined forces to develop a clean vehicle propulsion battery. They have allocated $ 130 million for research on the project for four years, adding the same amount the US Department of Energy.
Today, a typical family car has a steel building in which the body panels, reinforced adequate support requests via road and rear independent suspensions earlier, with chairs placed on the distance between axles for comfort. It is usually driven by a gasoline engine with a carburetor mixing gasoline with air to enter the engine cylinders (usually 4 or 6) and the engine is usually water-cooled. The engine power is transmitted through a clutch gearbox to a 4 or 5 speeds. By disrupts the driver clutch between the engine and gearbox while changing speed. From there, a motor car at the front and rear wheel drive power transmission drives a shaft connected to the differential gear, which drives the rear wheels.
There have been several steps to reduce traffic in cities. To discourage people to leave their cars parking in prohibited areas, some authorities have a policy of locking the wheels. Traffic lights at intersections to prevent traffic accidents, allowing traffic to flow in one direction at a time. Such contact can be controlled lights covered with rubber driven vehicle as it approaches the intersection. Often pedestrians can stop traffic through the buttons to cross the road safely. But modern lighting systems in circulation do more than prevent accidents. Though it works by stopping traffic control systems are designed so as to disrupt as little traffic flow to avoid congestion. This is done by using a computerized system to link the sequence of changes sign at an intersection with the next. Might as a motorist waiting at a set of lights, but driving at a speed appropriate car should reach the next traffic lights when they are green.